It is undeniable that throughout the world at present, natural and environmental conservation has become critical issue which is involved in operational and strategic plans of organizations in both of business and social sectors. As human beings need to use natural resources such as air, water and food since they are born, natural environment is indeed a cost of all activities of daily living.

          Recently, we have heard more frequently about natural disasters such as weather variations, floods, earthquakes, heavy storms and unusual heat that kills people including new types of plague and long-eradicated epidemics that reappear. Apart from natural changes, one of the main causes of these events is climate change that is caused directly and indirectly by human activities.

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          Greenhouse Gas; a Major Cause of Global Warming

          The greenhouse gas (GHG), which occurs from human activities, is a key factor that incites the climate change. Normally, the earth receives light energy from sunlight whereby part of it shall bounce off the earth as thermal energy. The earth’s atmosphere contains the GHG, which absorbs part of the thermal energy that helps retain warmth and suitable conditions for living creatures on this planet. Prior to the industrial revolution, volume of the GHG in the atmosphere was low and stable. Nonetheless, during post-industrial age, some kinds of gas have been accumulated and increased significantly. There are evidences which show that volume of GHG has been increased by human activities rather than by natural causes. As a result, radiation from the sun captured by high-volume GHG has caused the global warming gradually.

          A Paris Agreement Background

          In 2015, COP 21 or the 21st Conference under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change took place in Paris, France. The representatives of the parties of the UNFCCC from 196 countries jointly determined a target to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement became the world’s first comprehensive climate agreement that was ratified worldwide. It is a historic climate condition agreement that is expected to contribute benefits to mankind.

          Later, the 2016 Conference under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP 22 was held in Marrakech, Morocco during November 7 - 18, 2016. It was the first meeting held to implement the Paris Agreement into action since it has entered into force on November 4, 2016.

          Subsequently, the COP 22’s outcomes included more than 25 issues which encompassed adaptation, the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage caused by climate change impacts, empowering developing countries, technology transfer including finance and financial mechanism, etc. The conference concluded a deadline of 2018 to finalize the Paris Rulebook to operationalize the Paris Agreement.

          Thailand Has Joined as Party of the UNFCCC

          Thailand ratified to be party of the UNFCCC on December 28, 1994. As a Chair of the G-77 and China, Thailand played a crucial role at the COP 22 as alliance of developing countries to articulate and promote their collective economic interests as well as enhancing their joint negotiating capacity on major international issues within the UN system. Thailand proposed several attitudes of the group at the Conference such as financial support, technology development and transfer as well as empowering developing countries on their implementation of the climate change. With this regard, General Surasak Kanjanarat, the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment gave speech to the Conference on behalf of G-77 and China.

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          EGAT; a Co-Supporter on Global Warming Mitigation

          The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), which is an agency under supervision of the Ministry of Energy, has performed in accordance with the Paris Agreement regarding the greenhouse gas mitigation that was concluded during the COP21 in 2015. Thailand imposed the Power Development Plan or PDP 2015 (2015 - 2036) which specified that fossil fuel proportion used for electricity generation would be decreased and replaced by renewable energy. Moreover, energy conservation promotion is included in the plan as well. As a result, target of the greenhouse gas emission mitigation could be accomplished accordingly.

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Mr. Wiwat Chancherngpanich, Deputy Governor-Power Plant Development

          EGAT’s representative; Mr. Wiwat Chancherngpanich, Deputy Governor-Power Plant Development, who participated in the Conference at Morocco, reveals that in accordance with the Paris Agreement, EGAT has supported the country on the greenhouse gas emission mitigation. At the early stage, EGAT adopts and complies with NAMA (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions) whereby the greenhouse gas emission mitigation is voluntarily conducted by each party country. Thailand submitted its plan with the target to reduce GHG for 7 - 20% by 2020 when comparing to business as usual (BAU) of energy and transportation segments. Regarding capability assessment, EGAT shall be responsible for GHG reduction of 4 million tons by 2020 to accomplish NAMA’s target. Currently, EGAT is able to reduce GHG for more than 3 million tons by using renewable energy to generate electricity and improving its power plants’ efficiencies. In accordance with Thailand’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), its target is to reduce GHG volume for 20 - 25% by 2030 while EGAT shall take charge on this matter with the target to reduce GHG for 12 million tons.

          In a given social context, Thailand and EGAT have fully performed on this matter as well. EGAT has followed the progresses of electricity generating technologies that could reduce more GHG, especially renewable energy technology. However, such technology is being developed to increase its dependable performance. Thus, electricity generation from fossil fuel is still required in order to maintain power system stability and ensure power sufficiency. In the future when renewable energy technology is advanced enough and can be dependable with affordable price, Thailand shall increase proportion of renewable energy usage and decrease fossil fuel usage accordingly. Nonetheless, to reduce volume of GHG derived from production process, EGAT employs advanced technology to reinforce efficiency of electrical power generation from fossil fuel.

          The Deputy Governor also informs that besides of COP 22 participation, EGAT jointly organized exhibition under the topic “Sufficient Economy and Sustainable Energy for Climate Change Resolution” at the Thai Pavilion on the space over 100 square meters to declare intent on cooperation with a global community. Moreover, EGAT is ready to conduct the greenhouse gas emission mitigation and shall showcase its results of operation and adaptation on climate change on the global stage as well.

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Mr. Phirun Saiyasitpanich, Ph.D., Director of Climate Change Management and Coordination Division

          Under the supervision of the Office of Natural Resourcesand Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), Mr. Phirun Saiyasitpanich, Ph.D., Director of Climate Change Management and Coordination Division says that COP 21’s focal points were negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction and joint operations among party countries including developed, developing, rich and poor countries. Its outcomes became the Paris Agreement which was adopted by party countries after being ratified. Thailand shall study its terms and conditions and act appropriately and accurately to achieve the target as ratified. For COP 22, it focused on negotiation to implementation whereby party countries should perform their duties within the same framework without changing targets given by each country.

          For example, to ensure their understanding, the party countries shall study rules and regulations and report methods and technical details in order to have them applied as global standards. With this regard, Thailand shall carry out GHG reduction for 7 - 20 % by 2020 and 20 - 25 % by 2030 as predetermined.

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Mrs. Prasertsuk Chamornmarn, Director of Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO)

          Mrs. Prasertsuk Chamornmarn, Director of Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO), which is the organization that undertakes role to promote Thailand to become low carbon society, says that TGO and EGAT have continually cooperated to conduct GHG reduction. EGAT could reduce volume of GHG for approximately 3 million tons of carbon dioxide in 2014. Moreover, with cooperation of all relevant sectors, Thailand’s performance on GHG reduction is better than its target. Volume of GHG for 37 million tons of carbon dioxide was reduced in 2014, while the target is to reduce GHG for 24 tons of carbon dioxide in 2020. Such performance result shows that Thailand is ahead of its set target for 4 - 5 years. However, due to its continual development, Thailand shall require more energy in each year, and its domestic activities can cause higher volume of GHG accordingly. Therefore, the greenhouse gas emission mitigation is included in every energy plan, which means that energy must be consumed more effectively and worthily. Furthermore, Thailand shall place emphasis on both economic and social aspects by not only focusing on reduction of GHG, but also taking into account its capability on economic development as well.

          The climate change is a decisive problem that points out whether living creatures can survive on the earth or not. Commitments and efforts of every country in order to cope with this problem are crucial. As geographic, economic, politic and social conditions of each county are different, the Paris Agreement becomes mechanism that every country shall jointly apply. Thailand and EGAT will take part to withstand the climate change in order to sustain the earth and retain its resources for well-being of the next generation.

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